Notes for myself regarding a Nen/Nambo study my supervisors and I are working on.
Observation: DEM+COP constructions in Nen and Nambo function as a focus marker of some sorts. The copula verb in these sister languages (seems to?) agree on person, number, and tense, with the A/S argument of the clause. This focus marker, however, appears to be losing it’s agreement as the combined DEM+COP is becoming fossilised/grammaticalised.
Question: Is this grammaticalisation happening at the same rate in Nenland and Namboland? What are the heavy-use bilinguals doing?
- See what Nen speakers are doing. Are they decategorialising?
- See what Nambo speakers are doing. Are they decategorialising?
- See what the heavy-use bilinguals are going. Are they decategorialising?
Code for Nen:
- Identify the focus markers (DEM+COP followed by ambifixing verb)
- Note: Is it decategorialising? Y?N. If yes, on: Tense, Number, Person, All?
- Mark in also instances where DEM+COP is functioning just as the copula (code = Z)
- Prom: Speaker initials and PM (e.g. BT PM)
- Sph: Spelling (orthographic) Phon. Type whatever is in the transcription text.
- ClPh: Close Phonetic. Paying attention to consonant voicing, and syllable boundaries where possible. Don’t worry too much about vowel quality at this point in time. (e.g. ge.ym, gym, ge.dn.z.ron)
- PromGl: Prominence gloss. Break down of demonstrative type, and agreement of copula. (e.g. DEM1+3sgU:nphd. See below, “Types of DEM” and “Copula Code”)
- WhichV: Where is the main verb? (e.g. R, RR. See below, “Which V”
- Decat: Is the copula of the prominance marker decategorialising? Yes (D), No (A), others. See below, “Decat Tier Code”
- Decatcat: Category that is decategorialised.
- NP: What is the person number of the NP of the prominence construction?
Types of DEM
- DEM1 = ge
- DEM2 = gs
- PV = äte
- FUT1 = bä
- FUT2 = ä
- ym = 3sgU:nphd
- tm = 3sgU:ypst
- dnzron = 3sgU:rmpst
- däron = 3duU:rmpst
- R – The first verb to the right (in the transcription) is the main verb.
- RR -The second verb to the right (in the transcription) is the main verb.
- Z – Zero copula.
Decat Tier Code:
- D – Decategorialised
- A – Agreeing
- C – Caveat. There appears to be decategorialisation happening, but it may not be a true case due to contextual information (e.g. this bag gs ym, it was made like this back in the past). The Decatcat tier for code C is still to be coded as though a D.
Decatcat Tier Code:
- N – Number
- P – Person
- T – Tense
- When there is more than one, code in alphabetical order. (e.g. tense and number = NT, person and tense = PT)
NP Tier Code:
- Orthographic representation of the prominence construction NP.
- NPDeets: person and number, e.g. 3sg
Examples in ELAN:
Notes on odd cases
- When the PM or main verb has a super plural
- Coded as D on the decat tier. The NP tier for the noun phrase sets the person and number as 3sg.
Also coding for gesture
Code on Gesture tier:
- TO = Touch Object
- FP = Full Point
- HP = Half Point
- FB = Full Beat
- HB = Half Beat
- OG = Other Gesture, e.g. motion, eye gaze, nod, without a point or beat. If these other gestures are accompanying a point or beat, it is coded for point or beat.
- MOT = Motion gesture (e.g. acting out verb, motion of inclusion (e.g. ‘all of us’), motion of hither/thither)
- NG = No Gesture
Where ‘Point’ includes open hand gesturing to a referent (real or imagined) as well as the canonical one-finger point.
Where ‘Beat’ = non-pointed hand motion approximating a up-down/down-up movement of the hand.
Where ‘Half’ means below the waist.